1) What protocol can be applied when you want to transfer files between different platforms, such between UNIX systems and Windows servers?
Use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) for file transfers between such different servers. This is possible because FTP is platform independent.
2) What is the use of a default gateway?
Default gateways provide means for the local networks to connect to the external network. The default gateway for connecting to the external network is usually the address of the external router port.
3) One way of securing a network is through the use of passwords. What can be considered as good passwords?
Good passwords are made up of not just letters, but by combining letters and numbers. A password that combines uppercase and lowercase letters is favorable than one that uses all upper case or all lower case letters. Passwords must be not words that can easily be guessed by hackers, such as dates, names, favorites, etc. Longer passwords are also better than short ones.
4) What is the proper termination rate for UTP cables?
The proper termination for unshielded twisted pair network cable is 100 ohms.
5) What is netstat?
Netstat is a command line utility program. It provides useful information about the current TCP/IP settings of a connection.
6) What is the number of network IDs in a Class C network?
For a Class C network, the number of usable Network ID bits is 21. The number of possible network IDs is 2 raised to 21 or 2,097,152. The number of host IDs per network ID is 2 raised to 8 minus 2, or 254.
7) What happens when you use cables longer than the prescribed length?
Cables that are too long would result in signal loss. This means that data transmission and reception would be affected, because the signal degrades over length.
8) What common software problems can lead to network defects?
Software related problems can be any or a combination of the following:
– client server problems
– application conflicts
– error in configuration
– protocol mismatch
– security issues
– user policy and rights issues
9) What is ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol. It provides messaging and communication for protocols within the TCP/IP stack. This is also the protocol that manages error messages that are used by network tools such as PING.
10) What is Ping?
Ping is a utility program that allows you to check connectivity between network devices on the network. You can ping a device by using its IP address or device name, such as a computer name.
11) What is peer to peer?
Peer to peer are networks that does not reply on a server. All PCs on this network act as individual workstations.
12) What is DNS?
DNS is Domain Name System. The main function of this network service is to provide host names to TCP/IP address resolution.
13) What advantages does fiber optics have over other media?
One major advantage of fiber optics is that is it less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be transmitted and received. Signal degrading is also very minimal over long distances.
14) What is the difference between a hub and a switch?
A hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it would not be able to efficiently manage the volume of traffic that passes through it. A switch provides a better alternative that can improve the performance especially when high traffic volume is expected across all ports.
15) What are the different network protocols that are supported by Windows RRAS services?
There are three main network protocols supported: NetBEUI, TCP/IP, and IPX.
16) What are the maximum networks and hosts in a class A, B and C network?
For Class A, there are 126 possible networks and 16,777,214 hosts
For Class B, there are 16,384 possible networks and 65,534 hosts
For Class C, there are 2,097,152 possible networks and 254 hosts
17) What is the standard color sequence of a straight-through cable?
orange/white, orange, green/white, blue, blue/white, green, brown/white, brown.
18) What protocols fall under the Application layer of the TCP/IP stack?
The following are the protocols under TCP/IP Application layer: FTP, TFTP, Telnet and SMTP.
19) You need to connect two computers for file sharing. Is it possible to do this without using a hub or router?
Yes, you can connect two computers together using only one cable. A crossover type cable can be use in this scenario. In this setup, the data transmit pin of one cable is connected to the data receive pin of the other cable, and vice versa.
20) What is ipconfig?
Ipconfig is a utility program that is commonly used to identify the addresses information of a computer on a network. It can show the physical address as well as the IP address.
21) What is the difference between a straight-through and crossover cable?
A straight-through cable is used to connect computers to a switch, hub or router. A crossover cable is used to connect two similar devices together, such as a PC to PC or Hub to hub.
22) What is client/server?
Client/server is a type of network wherein one or more computers act as servers. Servers provide a centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. Clients refers to workstation that access the server.
23) Describe networking.
Networking refers to the inter connection between computers and peripherals for data communication. Networking can be done using wired cabling or through wireless link.
24) When you move the NIC cards from one PC to another PC, does the MAC address gets transferred as well?
Yes, that’s because MAC addresses are hard-wired into the NIC circuitry, not the PC. This also means that a PC can have a different MAC address when the NIC card was replace by another one.
25) Explain clustering support
Clustering support refers to the ability of a network operating system to connect multiple servers in a fault-tolerant group. The main purpose of this is the in the event that one server fails, all processing will continue on with the next server in the cluster.
26) In a network that contains two servers and twenty workstations, where is the best place to install an Anti-virus program?
An anti-virus program must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. That’s because individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus when plugging in their removable hard drives or flash drives.
27) Describe Ethernet.
Ethernet is one of the popular networking technologies used these days. It was developed during the early 1970s and is based on specifications as stated in the IEEE. Ethernet is used in local area networks.
28) What are some drawbacks of implementing a ring topology?
In case one workstation on the network suffers a malfunction, it can bring down the entire network. Another drawback is that when there are adjustments and reconfigurations needed to be performed on a particular part of the network, the entire network has to be temporarily brought down as well.
29) What is the difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?
CSMA/CD, or Collision Detect, retransmits data frames whenever a collision occurred. CSMA/CA, or Collision Avoidance, will first broadcast intent to send prior to data transmission.
30) What is SMTP?
SMTP is short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol deals with all Internal mail, and provides the necessary mail delivery services on the TCP/IP protocol stack.
31) What is multicast routing?
Multicast routing is a targeted form of broadcasting that sends message to a selected group of user, instead of sending it to all users on a subnet.
32) What is the importance of Encryption on a network?
Encryption is the process of translating information into a code that is unreadable by the user. It is then translated back or decrypted back to its normal readable format using a secret key or password. Encryption help ensure that information that is intercepted halfway would remain unreadable because the user has to have the correct password or key for it.
33) How are IP addresses arranged and displayed?
IP addresses are displayed as a series of four decimal numbers that are separated by period or dots. Another term for this arrangement is the dotted decimal format. An example is 192.168.101.2
34) Explain the importance of authentication.
Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s credentials before he can log into the network. It is normally performed using a username and password. This provides a secure means of limiting the access from unwanted intruders on the network.
35) What do mean by tunnel mode?
This is a mode of data exchange wherein two communicating computers do not use IPSec themselves. Instead, the gateway that is connecting their LANs to the transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the IPSec protocol to secure all communication that passes through it.
36) What are the different technologies involved in establishing WAN links?
Analog connections – using conventional telephone lines; Digital connections – using digital-grade telephone lines; switched connections – using multiple sets of links between sender and receiver to move data.
37) What is one advantage of mesh topology?
In the event that one link fails, there will always be another available. Mesh topology is actually one of the most fault-tolerant network topology.
38) When troubleshooting computer network problems, what common hardware-related problems can occur?
A large percentage of a network is made up of hardware. Problems in these areas can range from malfunctioning hard drives, broken NICs and even hardware startups. Incorrectly hardware configuration is also one of those culprits to look into.
39) What can be done to fix signal attenuation problems?
A common way of dealing with such a problem is to use repeaters and hub, because it will help regenerate the signal and therefore prevent signal loss. Checking if cables are properly terminated is also a must.
40) How does dynamic host configuration protocol aid in network administration?
Instead of having to visit each client computer to configure a static IP address, the network administrator can apply dynamic host configuration protocol to create a pool of IP addresses known as scopes that can be dynamically assigned to clients.
41) Explain profile in terms of networking concept?
Profiles are the configuration settings made for each user. A profile may be created that puts a user in a group, for example.
42) What is sneakernet?
Sneakernet is believed to be the earliest form of networking wherein data is physically transported using removable media, such as disk, tapes.
43) What is the role of IEEE in computer networking?
IEEE, or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is an organization composed of engineers that issues and manages standards for electrical and electronic devices. This includes networking devices, network interfaces, cablings and connectors.
44) What protocols fall under the TCP/IP Internet Layer?
There are 4 protocols that are being managed by this layer. These are ICMP, IGMP, IP and ARP.
45) When it comes to networking, what are rights?
Rights refer to the authorized permission to perform specific actions on the network. Each user on the network can be assigned individual rights, depending on what must be allowed for that user.
46) What is one basic requirement for establishing VLANs?
A VLAN requires dedicated equipment on each end of the connection that allows messages entering the Internet to be encrypted, as well as for authenticating users.
47) What is IPv6?
IPv6 , or Internet Protocol version 6, was developed to replace IPv4. At present, IPv4 is being used to control internet traffic, butis expected to get saturated in the near future. IPv6 was designed to overcome this limitation.
48) What is RSA algorithm?
RSA is short for Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is the most commonly used public key encryption algorithm in use today.
49) What is mesh topology?
Mesh topology is a setup wherein each device is connected directly to every other device on the network. Consequently, it requires that each device have at least two network connections.
50) what is the maximum segment length of a 100Base-FX network?
The maximum allowable length for a network segment using 100Base-FX is 412 meters. The maximum length for the entire network is 5 kilometers.